Master of Science in Management Program Overview

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Learn more about Ohio University’s Online Master of Science in Management.

Transcript

Amanda Scaperotta:

Hello everyone, and welcome. Thank you for joining us today. My name is Amanda Scaperotta. I’m the program specialist for the online Master of Science in Management program. Today I’m going to go over the introductions, the folks that we have here on the line. We’re also going to do a program overview and talk about the admission requirements for the program. We’re also going to have Q&A. At any time during the webinar if you have a question, please feel free to submit your question with the box that’s on the right-hand side of the webinar.

Amanda Scaperotta:

We have here with us today Dr. Ashley Metcalf, the chair of the program, and Dr. Amy Taylor-Bianco, the director of the program. Ashley Metcalf has a background in chemical engineering with work experience in the management of high volume manufacturing at Kraft Food and determining the functionality of next-generation products for Johnson and Johnson. Also on the line, Dr. Amy Taylor-Bianco focuses on strategic leadership and change, cross-functional and cross-cultural education, and executive development and self-regulation of leaders.

Amanda Scaperotta:

We’re going to jump right into the program overview and highlights of the Master of Science in Management program. And with that, I’ll pass it on over to Dr. Amy Taylor-Bianco.

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

Thank you, Amanda, and thank you all for being here today. I know it’s not an easy time to be present and get things done, although we have possibly more time at home than we did for some folks, we still have a lot to do, so I really appreciate you being here. On behalf of Dr. Metcalf, Amanda and I thank you so much.

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

I know I have a few former students here from Ohio University, which is fantastic, and some Columbia University, as well as somebody from PricewaterhouseCoopers. So thank you, and everyone else from all different backgrounds for being here. Our program is a phenomenal program really designed for people of all different backgrounds and areas. As you heard, Dr. Metcalf has a background in engineering and then in operations management. She’s worked with large companies, she’s a great scholar in her field, she’s done a lot of work in the area.

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

My background is in psychology and leadership, so business leadership. So we’re kind of a nice combination, I think, to talk about the breadth of the program. I want to mention before we get started that we also have phenomenal other faculty, which you’ll get to know. They all participate in the program, and I wanted to let you know that it’s all faculty that teach your courses, which is really great.

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

So let me go over this deep dive into management and leadership. So this program is really for you. It’s a personalized degree program. It’s not just a Master’s that you get to put that after your name, although you certainly get that, but it’s also a program that you can customize to your needs. So as you can see, we have different certificates. Right now there are a number of them offered there are five on here. Business Analytics, Business Venturing, so an entrepreneurial certificate, Human Resource Management at the strategic level, Operations and Supply Chain Management, and Strategic Sales and Leadership. So those are the optional certificates we also have a Management and Leadership Certificate that everyone in the program will take.

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

So when I said the program’s customized for you, part of that is because of its modular notion, so it’s flexible. You take the Management and Leadership Certificate, so that’s three courses, and then you choose two certificates of your liking for your particular background and your area. And we work with you to design a mini project in each of those certificates. So if you’re working, it could be with your company, with your organization. If you’re fresh out, it can be with something that we set up and help you figure out. But you can choose those areas, and we’ll have other areas offered additionally as well. And then finally you take a capstone, which is another three-course sequence, so you’re getting this three, three, three, three.

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

So that three-course sequence is ultimately where you pull together what you’ve learned so far and figure out how you’re going to use it. You develop a project, a larger project this time with an organization or a theoretical project. Really whatever you want to do, but you learn some applicable skills to pull that together. So it’s a really nice program and curriculum, I think, that is very, very flexible and helps you concentrate on the people, which are going to be the future. The people of your organization, how to interact with people, how to learn the management and leadership skills that you need. But then also, the processes. The processes that you need. And that’s where Dr. Metcalf comes in with backgrounds in analytics and engineering and operations management. So, we really represent the people and the processes you need to be successful in your organization.

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

Let me just add on the flexibility part, it is a stop in, stop out program, most programs are not like that. So say you took the Management and Leadership Certificate and then you got a new job and you needed to take three months to ramp up in that new job, and then you were ready to take your next certificate. You can definitely do that. So it’s a flexible curriculum that really works for you.

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

Going into the curriculum a little bit more, one of the nice things, again, is the curriculum is taught by faculty, for the large part faculty who also have industry experience. Who have different practical experience. Our HR area, for example, is taught by three people, actually two of them have… Actually all three of them have about 25 years of experience in their areas. So leading talent, leading operations and functional areas of HR, and the legal and ethical end. So we really bring in people who I think you’d enjoy working with and I think would add value to your area. So that’s just one area that I can talk about because it’s an area that I work in.

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

Let me go now to the actual curriculum itself if we look at management and leadership. So you’ll see that that certificate is three different courses. It’s management and leadership, really updated, I want to say, for the current situation. So leading in these times, managing in these times, managing change and complexity is a big part of it. So individuals and teams in a complex changing environment. Knowing how to quickly research that environment and how to deal with managerial decisions and challenges along the way. So we have a soft analytics focus in what we’re teaching is more focused on the people end, but we do look at the processes as well.

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

So that’s sort of the beginning, and then I’ll jump to the end, to the capstone experience. Because those are the two givens for everybody who’s going to take this master’s, excuse me, of Science and Management. Sorry about that. Okay, so that capstone experience, we have managerial effectiveness and research. I teach that class, it’s looking at really how to make your organization more effective, developing a program for that. Again, there’s so many organizations that need your help. You don’t have to have an organization, you can partner up with us and we’ll help you figure that out. Learning some research tools and focusing a bit on strategic communications and leadership. So how do you deal with things that we’re all dealing with now, like crisis management? Leading through changing times and crises? So there’s that course as well as your capstone project where you work with a faculty member on something that you have designed. Those are the two givens for everybody in the program.

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

Then we have a number of certificates. I did talk about one of them, the Human Resource Management Certificate. I kind of jumped in on that. But I believe that Dr. Metcalf was going to talk a little bit about the strength of those certificates and the faculty leading them.

Ashley Metcalf:

Thank you, Amy. So this is Ashley, and I will just take you through some of our specialized certificates that you can choose from when designing your Master’s of Science and Management degree. As Amy mentioned, every student in the master’s degree program will go through the Management and Leadership Certificate, as well as the capstone experience. But in the middle, you have the option to choose two certificates that you see here that best fit your needs or your career plans.

Ashley Metcalf:

And within these choices, we can look at the first one, Business Venturing. The Business Venturing Certificate is designed and led by faculty in our Center for Entrepreneurship. And these faculty are active in consulting, active in helping business ventures get funding, and have growth, and have marketing strategies. And so they’re very applied in their background, and they bring that into the classroom. This certificate is useful for people looking to start their own company, but it actually goes beyond that. It’s also useful for people working in really innovative industries, working in companies that are looking to grow, or looking for strategies for growth or strategies for differentiation. So that certificate has a lot of potential for those types of areas.

Ashley Metcalf:

Amy also mentioned the HR Certificate, so human resources. This certificate is led by our executives and residents that have decades of experience working in HR. This certificate is great for anyone working in human resources directly or looking to work in HR, or anyone that’s really looking to better their leadership skills of working with people and helping people navigate their organization.

Ashley Metcalf:

We also have a certificate in operations and supply chain, and this is a certificate that I teach a class in myself. This certificate is focused on processes. So how do you make your operations, your behind the scenes processes, more efficient, more effective, to have a higher quality? The classes that you take will focus on process improvement, process management, project management. So anyone looking to work in areas of improvement, operations, supply chain, project management, that would be a great certificate option for you.

Ashley Metcalf:

That pairs really well with business analytics. Actually, business analytics pairs really well with a lot of things. The Business Analytics Certificate focuses on looking at numbers, looking at data, making sense of data, running analysis on that data. All kinds of data that you would have in many organizations. Anything from marketing data, to data about your customers or your employees, data about your processes. It will help you understand how to put that data in a usable format, run analysis, and make decisions off of that analysis. So the analytics certificate pairs really well with operations, it pairs really well with human resources. It pairs well with business [inaudible 00:14:14]. It’ll give you those data skills for making data-driven decisions.

Ashley Metcalf:

And then we also have a Strategic Sales and Sales Leadership Certificate, which is a nice certificate to give you those skills on crafting your pitch. If you imagine in a business environment, whether you are a sales and marketing professional, or just someone who interacts with clients, we all understand that having that ability to sell your idea, to pitch your ideas, to pitch your products, having that strategy and that ability will always help you get ahead. So the sales certificate is a nice offering within the program as well.

Ashley Metcalf:

So the benefit of this master’s degree is its flexibility and the ability for you to pick which of these certificates best aligns with either your current background or your goals in terms of career path. All of the faculty are fantastic and they would be happy to answer any questions that you have on the certificates or the individual classes as well.

Ashley Metcalf:

And with that, I’ll hand it back to Amy to talk about some additional benefits of the master’s degree.

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

Thank you, Dr. Metcalf. And Dr. Metcalf is the chair of our management department where this whole program lies, so when says the faculty are great, she knows then all individually, works with them, and is really telling you a strength that we have.

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

So just to recap some of the strengths that she mentioned, Amanda and myself, the Master’s in Management is fully online. We have a comprehensive curriculum that’s designed to help you become a stronger manager, to motivate teams, and guide your organizations to success. Throughout the program you’re going to take certificates, so you’re going to take three certificates of three credits each. Each course is only seven weeks long. So that’s kind of nice too if you’re planning your time and figuring things out. Courses are seven weeks, certificates can be done in as few as 21 weeks, sometimes longer. Sometimes you’ll start one thing and then start another. But it is a very quick program. It can be done very quickly or can be slowed down if you need that. Whatever you need. And it’s fully online and it really just helps you develop the analytical skills and business intelligence that you need.

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

I wanted to point out one of the really unique, exciting aspects of the program, and something that we’ve become known for at Ohio University College of Business. The Walter Leadership Center, our Robert D. Walter Center for Strategic Leadership at the College of Business is one of the leading leadership centers in the country. It was the first center that focused on strategic leadership from the bottom up. So how do you lead with the whole organization in mind? How do you lead yourself, others, the organization? It is a phenomenal center led by Tim Reynolds, who has a very strong background in HR, leading different aspects of HR for worldwide companies.

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

And he and I and other folks, we developed this leadership development program. So it’s an LDP, it’s a weekend experience, and we’re working with it being online as well as in person. But it allows you to hear from experts in the field and to connect with one another. One of the nice things is you can go to more than one. You can go to usually two throughout your time. It’s an opportunity for you to connect with your peers, which is part of what you’re doing is you’re networking with your peers and with similar faculty. So we get great feedback on that, and I wanted you to know that. And again, it just shows how our faculty are really involved with you. I’ve been other places, I’ve seen different things, I think OU’s really hallmark is that high touch faculty experience.

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

We are also of course an accredited program, and I think Amanda was going to talk to you about our accreditation.

Amanda Scaperotta:

Yes, thank you so much. I wanted to take this opportunity as well to let you all know, please feel free to use that Q and A box that’s on your screen, submit those questions, and by the time this is all wrapped up, we’ll make sure that we’ve gotten to each and every one of you. Thank you so much.

Amanda Scaperotta:

Speaking of our accreditation here, what I really, really, really wanted to speak on is that we are AACSB accredited. There are fewer than 5% of the world’s business programs that are accredited by the Association of Advanced College Schools of Business at the undergraduate, graduate, and accountancy levels. Ohio has been among that elite group for nearly 70 years now. Also, when you pursue an MSM, you’re earning more than an education, you’re distinguishing your professional career here at Ohio. We also are ranked by US News and World Reports as one of the top universities for a college of business as well.

Amanda Scaperotta:

You also have the opportunity here at Ohio to not only be attending an accredited university, which does extremely matter, but we also are very student-centered here at Ohio University. Even though we’re online, it doesn’t mean we’re out of touch. The faculty is highly involved from start to finish with each student. You’re never an afterthought.

Amanda Scaperotta:

Also, I wanted to jump to our tuition and our scholarships here at Ohio University. I know that’s important to you all, and I know we had some questions before the webinar even began regarding this. So as you can see on the screen, we’ve laid out the tuition for both in state and out of state. Also, the scholarships that are available to our alumni, our veterans, and members of active or retired military and corporate partners. I’ll also be sending out that link as well to you all regarding more details about our scholarships. Again, if you’re an alumni, we offer a $1,500 alumni scholarship towards the program. And for veteran and military we also offer $1,500 as well. I’ll be sending out more of those details as well after this webinar to everyone who has attended.

Amanda Scaperotta:

Also, guys, I wanted to let you guys know, we are about to push this live, if you all are interested. We offer a full-time Master of Science and Management, it’s 100% online, and that full-time option can be completed in as little as 12 months. So did want to let you all know that. If you’re interested in that, please feel free to ask your questions. We’ll definitely be following up, and a member of our enrollment team will be following up about that option as well.

Amanda Scaperotta:

And Amy, did you want to add anything to that full-time option?

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

Yeah, just that the full-time option, I would say probably gives you even more interaction with your peers, just because you’re going to be doing it full-time. Both are helpful, but it does give you a little more interaction. We also have put it together so that if you choose to, you can do it in a full year so in a calendar year. Which is really a huge benefit to get an entire master’s degree in a calendar year. Now, you can also spread it out, you can also do it other ways, but it is a really nice, I think a really nice option.

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

Yeah, I don’t know if, Ashley, did you want to say anything on that too?

Ashley Metcalf:

Yeah, the nice thing about the design of this program is it’s so modular, and that it just gives you so much flexibility, not only in the choices of certificates that you choose but also the timeline that you choose to take it in. So it’s just another element of choice that you have to fit your lifestyle or career goals.

Amanda Scaperotta:

I wanted to mention, I did misspeak earlier, guys, on the scholarship announce. So for certificates, it’s $1,500, but for the full online MSM program for alumni, veteran, military, and our corporate partners, it’s $5,000. And again, I’ll get all that information out to you all after the webinar is complete.

Amanda Scaperotta:

I’m also going to move over to the development of leadership capability.

Ashley Metcalf:

Yes, thank you Amanda. So if we look at the management leadership certificates and all the subsequent certificates, as well as the umbrella of the master’s program as well, the entire program is designed so that you can develop better leadership capabilities. And we mean that in the sense of general leadership, leading yourself and others, but also leadership in particular areas, which are the certificate choices that you have.

Ashley Metcalf:

So whenever you develop your skills in management and leadership, that will help you climb up your corporate ladder, or just be a better contributor to your organization. The classes are, like Amy said, entirely online, which requires that you have self-discipline and time management, and those skills in themselves will help benefit you in your career.

Ashley Metcalf:

The program is designed to help you learn to approach real-world challenges. So it’s not just a textbook and some lectures. All of the design of the program is about application. Applying to your business, your context, your organization. And helping yourself upskill in your ability to manage people and programs. If this type of leadership development program makes sense for you, then you should really consider this Master’s of Science and Management, not only for its flexibility and customization but also the design of real-world application and context.

Ashley Metcalf:

Just because we’re online doesn’t mean we are out of touch. You still have a lot of opportunities to interact with your peers. And it’s actually designed that way. In addition to some on-campus weekend leadership development events, we also have strategically designed within individual classes the ability to interact with your peers in the program. For instance, in the class that I teach, I use voice thread, and if you’ve never used voice thread, it’s the ability to record yourself doing a presentation or doing an introduction, and then you are able to view and comment on the voice threads of your peers. It’s a really neat way to interact and view and talk to your colleagues, even in an online environment. It’s not out of touch, you do still have touch, not only with your faculty, but your peers that are going through the program and going through the individual certificates with you.

Ashley Metcalf:

We also have other touchpoints as well, through various technologies, not just voice thread, that faculty have been skilled on. We actually have learning designers in house that are helping faculty design in touchpoints in all of our classes. So you’re able to get to know each other as a cohort and also in individual certificates. You’ll get to know people in the same industries and areas as you as well.

Ashley Metcalf:

Amy, do you have anything else you’d like to add there regarding the touchpoints within the program?

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

Thank you, yeah, I don’t have anything specific. I did want to say that we have one of our other faculty members present, Tammy Reynolds, who is leading with the HR Certificate. She’s present if people want to ask questions about that in the Q and A.

Tammy Reynolds:

Actually, hi, thanks for the introduction-

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

Oh, great.

Tammy Reynolds:

This is Tammy Reynolds. I did want to just add, for example in the class that I’m in the process of designing, is performance management, and total rewards. So one of the activities that I have planned for this class would be to actually do a performance coaching session with a peer. The course is designed to be largely asynchronous, but there are some points that we’re going to build in a specific touchpoint so you don’t have to talk to all 20 or 30 or 40 people, but you would have to reach out to, you’d be connected with one other person to do a mock coaching session. And then of course there’s the teamwork that you would do as well. So we definitely want to design in some touchpoints so that you get that whole experience of developing a professional network through this process as well. Hopefully, that adds a little bit of insight into some of the things that we might be doing.

Amanda Scaperotta:

Thank you all for that additional information, and welcome, Tammy. Again, guys, feel free to use that Q and A, ask any questions, we’re happy to get all of those answered.

Amanda Scaperotta:

I wanted to take a moment and talk about the convenience and flexibility. All of your coursework is online, and as with any graduate-level coursework, online courses require you to be self-motivated. Be sure to take advantage of the various resources you have to lean on. Your student support specialist, your faculty, and all of your peers in your classroom. Although you can learn at a time that’s convenient for you, you still must keep up with assignment due dates. It would be ideal to include your coursework and study time into your daily schedule to ensure you don’t get off track. Or really, whatever works best for you to keep yourself organized and going. If that’s keeping a planner, post-it notes, cell phone reminders, Alexa reminders. Whatever’s best for you to keep you motivated and organized, because, at the end of the day, you’re in control of this vehicle, if you will.

Amanda Scaperotta:

Having a good place to study that keeps you free from distractions or work is super helpful so you can focus on your task at hand. Never be afraid to ask questions, whether if that’s to your student support specialist, your faculty, to your peers. Whether that be in the Blackboard system that we use, or if it’s offline via email or text. Whatever works best for you, never be scared or afraid to raise your hand and ask questions so that we get your individual needs taken care of.

Amanda Scaperotta:

Alright, I’m also going to go over the admission requirements for the online Master of Science and Management and also have the Q and A session.

Amanda Scaperotta:

You need a bachelor’s degree from an accredited university with a GPA of 3.0 or higher. You’re also going to need your official transcripts from colleges and universities that you’ve attended, your current resume, and also we ask for three letters of recommendation, and the application fee is going to be $50 for this program.

Amanda Scaperotta:

Alright, I’m going to go over some questions that we’ve had. One that came in prior to the webinar starting, and any of the faculty that’s on the line, please feel free to answer this one. One of them was, “how many classes can I take per semester for the online Master of Science and Management program?”

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

Yeah, this is Amy here. That’s a great question. So for the full time how many classes? It ends of being, within a semester, which is 14 to 15 weeks, it ends up being three to four classes. I think we have it now so you start out with three, with nine credits, and you move on to 12 credits each of the other semesters if you look at the whole thing at once.

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

And I wanted to just add real quick, just to put in a plug, there’s no GMAT or GRE scores required for this, which I just wanted to add that to the admissions requirements because I think that’s really helpful if you’re just switching gears now and you don’t have time to get all that done. We understand that and we look at your other information and we see that as really painting a great picture of your background. Thanks, Amanda.

Amanda Scaperotta:

Thank you for adding that, Amy, that’s very important as well.

Amanda Scaperotta:

Also, another question that came in, and I also see a few of you in the Q and A, I’ll get to those as well. The next question is, “are there any on-ground requirements for the online Master of Science and Management program?”

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

Great question, and we’re working on that right now. Previously we have said that the one thing that is required in person is to come to the Walter Center Leadership Development program, which I talked about earlier, it’s a phenomenal program. It’s just a weekend experience, like a Friday through Sunday. We’re in the process of figuring out whether that can be done in different formats as well. So I can’t exactly answer that question, but I can tell you it wouldn’t be more than a weekend’s worth, and you might really enjoy that weekend.

Amanda Scaperotta:

Yes, and to piggyback off that, our LDP [inaudible 00:35:12] is a requirement for the MSM program. It’s really a great weekend to connect with your peers and really take away some great information from huge speakers that come in just for this event alone.

Amanda Scaperotta:

Another question that someone had was, “I see that there are five certificates to choose from for the MSM degree, which is super awesome. Can any two out of those five be chosen, and is the management,” it’s a two-part question, “and is the Management and Leadership Certificate an automatic certificate you have to take?”

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

I think I got the last part of that for sure. So yes, that is an automatic certificate that you have to take, that everyone takes. It kind of ushers you into the program as well. And then what was the other part, Amanda?

Amanda Scaperotta:

So sorry about that. The other part was, they see that there are five certificates to choose from. Given somebody’s background, do they really get the choice, I’m trying to understand their question here… Do they really get the choice that they can choose any of the two of the five to complete their degree? And I believe that answer is yes.

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

Absolutely, yes. It is based on availability, so we are starting out, but it’s not only any of those five, there will be additional ones added. And you definitely choose, you develop your program plan.

Amanda Scaperotta:

Awesome, thank you, Amy. And this is a question for any of the faculty that’s on the line, “does your undergraduate degree, so your bachelor’s degree, can it be in any field, or does it specifically have to be in business to come into the online Master of Science and Management program?”

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

We have a-

Ashley Metcalf:

So this is-

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

Oh, go ahead. Thank you, Ashley.

Ashley Metcalf:

Go ahead, Amy. You can take it.

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

Sorry, I was just going to say that we have a really interesting program in that it’s kind of tiered, and that’s what the management and leadership certificate is about is to see where you are, to do a little bit of an assessment of where you are and what you need to learn. So you could have a background in anything. You could have a background in library science, in occupational therapy, in sports administration, in really anything, and decide that you need these management skills.

Amanda Scaperotta:

Awesome. Thank you all so much. Are there any last-minute questions, I want to ask to the audience before we wrap things up?

Amanda Scaperotta:

Oh, here’s one I wanted to ask. If your undergraduate degree was performed at OU, is an official transcript still required as part of the application process?

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

It’s much easier to do, and I will defer that question to… I can get that question answered if you just ask it to me, but I am not certain but I know that if you do need it, it’s not like it used to be. It’s actually a very, very easy online process.

Amanda Scaperotta:

Awesome, thank you so much for that. I also have seen a few questions come in about the 3.0 GPA requirement. If you have a 2.9 or a 2.8, don’t let that discourage you from applying to the program. It’s not a hard and fast 3.0. We do look at your background and other items in your history. So please, if you have a 2.8 or 2.9, please do apply and you’ll be working with an enrollment advisor on your background for applying to the online Master of Science and Management program.

Amanda Scaperotta:

I did want to note, we do have three starts per year for the program. That’s going to be in the spring, the summer, and the fall. So you’re looking at January start, May start, and late August start as well. So we have three starts per year, I wanted to note that for the program.

Amanda Scaperotta:

And with that said, Dr. Bianco, did you have any closing remarks for the program that you wanted to add?

Amy Taylor-Bianco:

I just want to thank everybody for spending your time, for coming and talking to us about this, let you know that we are fully available to talk to you more. And I want to thank everyone who attended, Amanda I want to thank you for leading, and Dr. Metcalf, the chair of the department, with your busy schedule, to come in and work with us. And Tammy Reynolds, how great to have such solid HR experience and such a phenomenal person, so just thank you.

Amanda Scaperotta:

And Dr. Metcalf and Tammy, would you guys like to add any closing remarks about the online Master of Science and Management program today?

Ashley Metcalf:

Hi, this is Ashley-

Tammy Reynolds:

Amy, I think I would defer to you.

Ashley Metcalf:

Yeah, so this is Ashley, and I just wanted to again echo thanks for all of you joining us today. This is a really great and innovative degree program. It’s really maximum flexibility and customization. I think you would be pleasantly surprised, not only with the customization level but with the high touch and the involvement with the faculty and the design of the program, it’s been very thought out. We appreciate your time and consideration of the degree.

Amanda Scaperotta:

Thank you all so very much for joining us today. Please feel free to still submit any questions. We’ll make sure that those are all answered. Thank you again for joining, and please reach out to us via the phone number or the email address on this screen. Thank you all so much.